Pull back to observe and investigate before drawing any conclusions. The AstroTwins talks to Astrostyle's numerologist, Felicia Bender, about how the ways a 1 Universal Month lights a fire under our feet and how your life path and zodiac sign! This one is Virgo for my sun sign. That might mean splurging on something beautiful and wearable or being a little hedonistic when you're out with friends.
Another round of oysters and champagne, please! Think of this as your cosmic "cheat day" and indulge Naughtiness will be hard to resist under this bacchanalian transit, so if you're detoxing from sugar or whatever or just committed to an exclusive relationship, find your fun somewhere that won't tempt you to violate those agreements. Colombres Daniel R. Y Cesar Barrio con su yamaha RD astro look. Anyone else feel a big shift internally this week that sparked an unknown fire within, opening your eyes to something you cant quite put your finger on quite yet??
Cause yea me too. I'll be enjoying some stillness. This lunar lift calls in complements, not clones. Libra is the sign of beauty and glamour Enjoy a day of shameless pampering. Swipe right on an attractive opposite. Sit down in that salon chair and set up a shoot. Time for some fresh photos with the bomb lighting. Tag an Astros fan below! Para atraerlos es necesario mostrarles nuevos sentimientos a un que algunas veces hay que ser reservados y resistirnos, esto es necesario para su equilibrio emocional.
Tiene un inconsciente don de mando. Info that's been buried in Pluto's vault could surface as Mercury the messenger throws down the gauntlet. Can you say Ukraine hotline bling? Cover-ups and scandals could be exposed. Or maybe you'll just get a "sense" that something's a little off. While Mercury rules the mind, Pluto operates on the intuitive level. While their square can churn up some overblown suspicion, don't brush off anything that bugs you without investigating.
Stress from work could feed into your relationship or vice versa. Take a deep breath—and a beauty break—instead of driving yourself to produce under this self-inflicted intensity. While it might seem totally counterintuitive, a timeout will actually make you more effective, since relaxing will open up your creative channels and bring breakthrough insights. Love starts with yourself. Looking for a rose quartz yoni egg? Tiffany has a vast selection of gems to choose from. Check the event details in my previous post; tix are almost sold out.
Cheers to self-love, partnership, and women supporting women. Links to everything mentioned above in the Linktree in my bio. Don't send that text!
With the dramatic Leo moon squaring hotheaded Uranus in Taurus, nothing is quite as it seems. It's too easy to misread signals and take the wrong things personally and the right things as slights. Before you turn the most supportive friend you have into your mortal enemy, put down your phone and go to yoga, take a walk, get a massage Aries starts its rulership at the Autumn Equinox in the Southern Hemisphere. Aries is the natural ruler of the first astrological house, and is ruled by the planet Mars.
It is the first of the fire signs and has masculine energy. Aries is a cardinal sign with positive polarity. Ariens are determined, independent, courageous and strong-willed. Key challenges for Ariens is overcoming black-and-white or single-minded thinking, being less argumentative and more patient. In medical astrology, Aries rules the head and face. Aries is typically a sign of beginnings and the newly born.
Tag an Aries that you know! Is Balance a Myth? Ditch anything obsessive, anxiety-producing and extreme. This peaceful solar cycle, which lasts until October 22, calls for moderation, serenity and regular beauty breaks. Make art not war , have a playlist for every moment, only wear clothes that feel as good as they look. Today is also the equinox, when day and night share equal screen time. Have certain relationships become lopsided? This is your cue to create a healthier flow of give and take, "me" and "we. Disciplined Saturn checks distractible Mercury's scattered energy, forcing us to prioritize.
If you're juggling all the things, set aside anything that isn't essential—or delegate it to someone who has the focus and willingness to get the job done right. No one wins a prize for being a martyr, so if that's been you, step out of the "race" and relax. Find out what this Sunday has in store for your star sign and go read yer daily horoscope link in bio. It's hard to tell under today's hedonistic Jupiter-Neptune square.
These boundless planets have locked horns three times in —on January 13, June 16, and today, September 21—blurring the line between dreams and reality. Everything feels bigger, more emotional and overwhelming that perhaps it is. One minute you're inspired, the next you're exhausted.
People are charming, but are they honest and true? This churning energy has forced us to deal with the things that need to end Take a break from looking on the bright side of a withering situation and let yourself feel the disappointment for a minute. Trying to sugarcoat is might actually be blocking miracles from coming in.
Stop pushing and forcing and spinning and weaving. Instead, stop and be receptive. We call it womanifestation Repost Preach astrotwins! As the moon in loquacious Gemini gets in formation with outspoken Mercury in Libra, it's time to spill. Send that text, ask the "embarrassing" questions, get clear on where everyone stands.
Talking things through can dissolve the tension in surprising ways. Taking orders for this fan favorite! Comment with email and size for invoice. Sometimes it's best to lead by example. Be a role model instead of doling out unsolicited advice or trying to do the heavy lifting for someone who needs to roll up their own sleeves and hustle.
Offer an empowering, "You've got this! Are you fighting the same battles or have you grown from them? The Lord of Karma, Saturn, wakes up today. Taskmaster Saturn pivots out of retrograde after five months of cracking down on us all with questionable AF force. Since April 24, you may have felt like Sisyphus, rolling a boulder up a hill or a marionette being jerked around by some crazy puppeteer. This is your prompt to take care of Saturn-ruled body parts: skin, bones and teeth. Schedule a dentist appointment, visit the chiropractor or get a facial. Abraham Lincoln. Beetle Bot. Bounty Hunter.
Captain Wrenchfury. Carcinus Gigas. Commander Ender. Cyber Croc. Cyber Punk. Dead Bot. Deathcon 1. Deus Machina. El Veneno. Eva's Replication. Fuel Wasp. Grumpy Claus. High Gravelord. Kitty Ranger. Optimus Zord. Project 3V3. R0B-H4N Sentinel. Robo Fuerte. Sergeant Dusk. Spin Fury. Stealth Bot. Steam Warlord. Supraman X. The Darkseer. The Plumber. Baron Lundi. Commodore Le Shark. Crypt Wraith. Cursed Rider. Dandy Bones. Dire Despot. Doctor Blaw. Drudge Zombie.
Dug Dario. Galactic Emperor. George Washington. Jack O'Lantern. King Lulu. Lady Harpy.
Leech Lord. Micky Krueger. Plague Witch. Psycho Chainsawer. Runt and Cerebro. Scare Bear. Soul Eater. The Boogey Girl. The Collector. The Experiment. The Forgotten One. The Glutton. The King of Mimphys. The Primal. The Undertaker. Undead Dragon. Van Helsing. Akuso Monk. Battle Toad. In astrology, the major planets include the main planets in the solar system and include the Sun and Moon.
In horoscope interpretation, the planets in the natal chart represent major personality characteristics. Sidereal Zodiac. A zodiac that is based on the actual constellations in the sky along the ecliptic and follows the astronomical precession of the equinoxes. The sidereal zodiac is generally associated with Eastern or Vedic astrology. Tropical Zodiac. A zodiac determined by the equinoxes and solstices instead of the actual star positions of the constellations.
The date of the equinoxes establish 0Aries and 0 Cancer, whereas the solstices establish 0 Cancer and Capricorn. The tropical zodiac is generally associated with Western astrology. Zodiac Signs or Signs. The zodiac is an imaginary belt in the heavens approximately 20 degrees wide that follows the path of the ecliptic.
Depending on whether a tropical or sidereal zodiac is used, it is either calculated using the actual constellations along the ecliptic at any given time, or is mathematically calculated based on the solstice and equinox points. The zodiac is partitioned into 30 equal parts or signs:. In horoscope interpretation, the sign represents a basic attitude, style, or orientation that moderates the interpretation of the planets.
Although the Sun as an independent variable has been repeatedly tested, very few studies have tested the Moon as an independent variable. Astrology literature strongly supports that the Moon is a main, distinct factor in the horoscope among many factors used in interpretation.
This study established theoretically supported hypotheses that the Moon as an independent variable in the horoscope will be discernible in the mean scores of participants who completed the NEO PI-R. Archived data from previous assessments conducted by the California Institute for Open Studies CIOS were used for the study, providing a sample of participants who, in addition to completing the NEO PI-R, also provided the birth information required to construct a natal chart.
Theoretical Perspective The theoretical perspective for this study is that there are stable psychological personality constructs that can be measured by the NEO PI-R assessment instrument and these constructs may be related to the astrological Moon variable. To test this theory, one independent variable the Moon from a set of interrelated variables that presents a systematic view of personality development the astrology horoscope was compared to another set of interrelated variables that also present a systematic view of personality development T scores from the NEO PI-R personality assessment instrument to test whether there was a relationship between the two.
A series of statistical t tests were performed for four categorical element groups of the independent Moon variable to test for a statistically significant difference in the mean scores of the theoretically linked personality factor in the NEO PI-R established in Chapter 3. The overarching hypothesis was that if the Moon as an independent variable in the horoscope does predict elevated domain scores in the identified personality dimensions, then there would be a positive relationship with the corresponding self-report domain score in the NEO PI-R.
Generally, psychologists will use an assessment test battery a series of psychological assessments administered in an attempt to develop a complete picture of the person with the goal of developing a global description of the person using objective measures.
Groth-Marnat, Theoretically, the means by which astrologers use the astrology horoscope suggests that it potentially belongs in the battery of personality assessment instruments used as personality profile measures. Astrologers claim that both independent and combined factors in the horoscope predict certain personality characteristics. Most astrologers "intuitive" or "psychic" astrologers excepted would consider the natal chart an objective measure. Although the interpretation of the horoscope has considerable variance among individual astrologers, the construction of the natal chart is universal and consistent, based on strict calculations from data including the birth date, birthplace, and exact time of birth.
In other words, the instrument is objective and consistent, but it may not be reliable due to variance in interpretation or valid because the variables in the horoscope do not represent the personality factors according to astrological theory. If, in fact, factors in the astrology horoscope are shown to be a valid measure of personality characteristics, then it can take its place next to other instruments that are used in clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. This study was limited to a study of the Moon as one of the main factors considered in horoscope interpretation.
Autobiographical Origins of the Researcher's Interest in the Topic I became interested in astrology around when I was leafing through a book on horoscopes that was on a friend's bookshelf. Unlike other astrology books I had seen. At the time I knew I was a Gemini learning later that this meant my Sun sign was Gemini , but I had no knowledge of anything else in my horoscope.
Once I calculated some of the other planets in my horoscope and the signs where they were located, I flipped to the back of the book to read the interpretations. I remember feeling very shocked and surprised that the descriptions appeared to match personality characteristics that I recognized in myself.
Intrigued, I borrowed the book, read it cover-to-cover, and then began ordering more astrology textbooks, learning to construct natal charts and conduct interpretations. I ordered astrology software that would construct natal charts quickly and participated in a "Master's Degree Certification Course in Astrology" offered by Noel Tyl, a professional astrologer.
I started interpreting horoscopes for friends and family members and eventually began charging money for the interpretations. People generally enjoyed the interpretations and many expressed similar surprise that the descriptions matched their personality characteristics. Four years later, I was seeing one or two paying clients per week as an astrologer. I was also interested in teaching astrology and was looking for a means to develop a business where I could teach and learn more about other "metaphysical" subjects. Note that metaphysical is a commonly used term to describe subjects like astrology, numerology, and tarot.
It has a different meaning than the classic metaphysics of Greek philosophy. In , with a business partner, I co-founded a for-profit learning institution originally registered with the state of California as The Cadent Cross Institute. Our business model was to create an organization that sponsored classes, lectures, and workshops taught by individuals who submitted proposals to teach coursework in psychology, mythology, metaphysics, and alternative health.
I continued to see clients privately to conduct astrology interpretations and began teaching astrology classes and workshops through the institute. I also began writing astrology articles and an interpretive textbook and developed enough of a positive reputation to begin lecturing nationally at astrology conferences and for astrology organizations.
By , the organization had three full-time staff members including me and 14 adjunct faculty members who taught regularly. We also had a seven-member volunteer board of directors that was initially created in to explore filing with the state of California as a nonprofit, c 3 educational institution. Although we ultimately decided not to pursue nonprofit status in part because three of the seven members of the board were paid staff, which was not allowed under California nonprofit law , the board of directors continued to meet monthly between and for strategic planning purposes.
In early , a strategic business decision was made by the board members to begin conducting metaphysical research studies, in an attempt to broaden the scope of the institute. I was part of a research committee that included a licensed psychiatrist and clinical social worker that first drafted the idea of collecting data from personality assessment instruments and comparing it to the natal chart.
The goal of this research was to explore the validity of astrology and potentially publish articles based on that research. I had a strong personal investment in conducting astrology research because of my background as an astrologer. We began soliciting participants by placing a notice in the CIOS monthly newsletter for 3 consecutive months in the fall and early winter , requesting noncompensated volunteers who would be willing to "complete selected personality assessment questionnaires for use in a research project that will be looking for relationships between these types of assessments and the astrology horoscope.
The CIOS research committee initially chose those four assessments as an assessment battery to capture a broad range of personality traits. In , after 92 participants had completed the initial battery of assessments, the MMPI-2 was removed from this study after the committee decided that the clinical nature of the assessment instrument did not reflect our research interests. When the participants completed the assessments, they were informed that it would take some time for their assessment results to be scored, but in the meantime the assessments would remain secure in a locked filing cabinet at the CIOS offices and that they would be provided feedback when the final assessments were scored.
Participants were informed that their assessment results would remain secure and that they would eventually be provided feedback when they were scored. However, the project stalled as other members of the research committee had competing projects and I had become very busy in my doctoral studies in clinical psychology.
None of us had the time to dedicate to the research project and the data remained unused and unanalyzed. We sent out an email to the volunteers and apologized for the delay, informing them that the assessments would eventually be scored, but in the meantime, they would be archived. Unfortunately, the economic events leading up to the global recession of the late s had a considerable impact on the organization. In , we eliminated much of our curriculum and in , the business ceased operations. The completed assessments were never scored or used in any study, and upon the closing of the business they remained in my possession in a locked cabinet in my home office.
My own practice as a part-time professional astrologer followed a similar trajectory to the organization. In ,1 began my doctoral studies. As I learned more about clinical psychology and counseling individuals, as well as confounds and artifacts, I began to develop ambivalence about my horoscope-based interactions with paying clients. Although I was still lecturing about astrological archetypes and their relation to myth and symbolism, I ceased meeting with clients to interpret their horoscopes.
However, my interest in astrology research grew. I wanted to know what research had been previously conducted and how questions about astrology's validity had been explored. I knew from personal experience that many people are interested in astrology and willing to pay money to learn more and be "assessed" by a professional astrologer.
Yet, ultimately, I felt that I did not have enough information to answer the question of whether the horoscope does, in fact, independently reflect a person's personality development or whether there are contributing confounding factors. This question is the starting point for this doctoral study. The Researcher's Predisposition to the Topic As mentioned above, my predisposition to this topic includes my years of study and work as an astrologer and astrology teacher. One of my predispositions is that I know astrology "works" in that it clearly provides satisfaction and solace for millions of people; I experienced this first-hand in my interactions with clients and students.
I know my own natal chart very well and there are many symbols in the horoscope that I can attribute to my personality. Without controlling for confounds or artifacts, I have experienced the apparent appearance of astrology variables that correlate with personality characteristics. However, over time, I developed uneasiness with astrology. I had the same "wrong chart" experience that well-known professional astrologers David Hamblin Phillipson, and Peter Niehenke had, where a natal chart is constructed and a well-received interpretation is given to a client, who expresses his or her amazement at the interpretation, and then it is discovered that you had the wrong birth information and thus interpreted the wrong natal chart.
I read and identified with the "confessions" of other former professional astrologers who described similar initial amazement and then disappointment after researching astrology and concluding that confounds and artifacts play a key role in astrology's acceptance Phillipson, ; Smit, n. Mostly I. Often I had the sense that my astrology clients had psychological concerns that were not being addressed and the reliance on a horoscope may actually inhibit potential insight and self-awareness. Yet, there were still times when the exactitude of personality characteristics and life events that astrology was able to predict about a complete stranger for whom I only had birth information was awe-inspiring.
Although I have not practiced astrology for a number of years due both to my ambivalence and my evolving interests, there are still times that I miss the otherworldly feeling of those first astrology experiences. Ultimately, having had an emotional and financial investment in astrology's success at one point in my life renders me vulnerable to charges of subjectivity. Additionally, when the institute's committee of individuals who were supporters and "believers" in astrology first conceived of doing this type of research, I was on that committee and a practicing astrologer, which certainly suggests a predisposition toward a positive result.
However, my distance from a professional or personal astrology practice theoretically allows for some of the objectivity that can develop over time and space; at the very least, my transference reactions have the potential to be less powerful and more conscious Heglend et al. Moreover, the argument has been made that pure objectivity by a researcher is a fantasy and the subjectivity of the researcher is not only intimately involved in the topics we choose, but is a valuable enhancement to the research process Gergen, ; Ratner, ; Romanyshyn, In the end, I learned enough about the proprieties of astrology to stand confidently next to any professional astrologer and subsequently invested myself completely in the.
I feel that this combination serves to protect the integrity of a study such as this. Unlike the skeptics, I am not out to disprove astrology or use the opportunity to scorn or condemn its practitioners which has been done, as reviewed below. Nor am I one of the believers who are so invested in a positive outcome for astrology that anything else is dismissed as "bad science" or defended against with stubbornness and stoicism.
Instead, I approach this study with interest and curiosity, the recognition of its limitations, and the investment to carry it through to the answers and further questions it reveals. The sheer number of publications about astrology is vast. A search of the Library of Congress's online catalog search returned book titles with reference to the keyword of astrology Library of Congress, ; this does not include the considerable number of astrology references in journal publications, both peer and non-peer reviewed.
Another difficulty is that there are distinct interpretive approaches to astrology that are roughly associated with geographically based cultural philosophies, such as Western, Vedic, Chinese, Babylonian, Mayan, and more. Additionally, the field of astrology includes many different methodologies for using and interpreting the symbols of the horoscope: this includes natal astrology interpreting the natal chart cast at the moment of birth for personality characteristics , predictive astrology using current planetary transits and other forms of astrological measurement to predict events , electional astrology choosing astrologically beneficial dates , horary astrology a divination technique in which the horoscope is used to answer specific questions , mundane astrology the application of astrology to world affairs and world events , medical astrology using astrology to predict specific health problems , synastry comparing horoscopes to discern relational tendencies between individuals, groups, or both , intuitive astrology using the horoscope as an object to direct "psychic" intuition , and other specialized niches agricultural, astro-meteorology, esoteric, alchemical, etc.
To accommodate the disparate number of sources concerning astrology and their relevance to this study, the literature to be surveyed was limited primarily to statistical, scientific, or research-based studies of Western, natal astrology, with a focus on. Although this literature review does include a brief history of astrology, it does not include research studies of predictive astrology or any of the other subsets of astrology, nor does it include nonscholarly or case study publications. This review also does not include non-peer reviewed studies except where included as part of a meta-analysis.
History of Astrology Astrology has a vast and varied history. The myth-making, storytelling, and image-creating references to the rising and setting of the Sun and Moon as they moved across the sky can be traced back as far as the Stone Age, circa BCE Campion, By the 16th century BCE, the Babylonians had begun to compile lists of astronomical phenomenon and what they believed were correspondences with mundane events, which became known to historians from the Enuma Anu Enlila series of tablets that interpret the observations in terms relevant to the king Holden, By the first century AD, astrology had developed as a system of observations and interpretations that would be readily recognizable to the modern astrologer Holden, ; Whitfield, By the Middle Ages, astrology had spread throughout the world and attained a position of prominence until approximately the 17th century, when astrology became a focus of attack in the tide of scientific reason spreading through the universities Bobrick, ; Tester, In the midth century, astrology was banished from the universities in France and Europe and faded from the public sector.
The Theosophical movement revived interest in astrology in Great Britain during the late 19th century and its re-kindled popularity spread to the United States Lehmann, Popular View of Astrology as a Scientific Discipline Astrology's popularity has remained intact into the 21st century. Nor is belief in astrology limited to entertainment, folklore, or religious practice. In , the European Commission conducted a public opinion poll of all the Member States of the European Union and found that Academic Criticism of Astrology as a Scientific Discipline In spite of the popular belief in astrology as a practice and a science, much of the academic and scientific community remains incredulous and critical towards astrology as a scientific discipline worthy of study.
Richard Dawkins, one of the preeminent scientists of the twenty-first century and the author of The Selfish Gene Dawkins, , roundly. One of the strongest statements of condemnation was published in by The Humanist: A Magazine of Critical Inquiry and Social Concern, which produced a manifesto entitled, "Objections to Astrology: A Statement by Leading Scientists," in which a group of scientists, including 19 Nobel laureates, attempted to make the case that "believing" in astrology is unscientific and ignorant: Those who wish to believe in astrology should realize that there is no scientific foundation for its tenets One would imagine, in this day of widespread enlightenment and education, that it would be unnecessary to debunk beliefs based on magic and superstition We believe that the time has come to challenge directly, and forcefully, the pretentious claims of astrological charlatans.
It should be apparent that those individuals who continue to have faith in astrology do so in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis for their beliefs, and indeed that there is strong evidence to the contrary. Goodstein and Brazis conducted a large-scale study designed to test academic bias against astrology. In order to evaluate the potential effects of bias by psychologists, they sent randomly chosen members of the American Psychological Association APA a fictitious study of astrology with a questionnaire that asked the psychologists to rate the quality and scientific merit of the study.
Two identical abstracts were distributed randomly among the sample, but one group of abstracts reported positive findings and the other negative findings. Of the responses returned, those who received the abstract with the negative findings rated the study as having a better design and greater scientific merit than those receiving the abstract indicating positive findings for astrology.
Additionally, Goodstein and Brazis report that some of the responses to the questionnaire included unsolicited commentary indicating strong affective reactions and prejudgments against astrology as a discipline. Other academics have studied astrology's philosophy, tenets, and principles, and have criticized astrology at the level of its methods. Numerous detractors have claimed that there is little consensus among astrologers on the basic issuestheories, techniques, and interpretationsand the same horoscope is often interpreted in an idiosyncratic way by the particular astrologer doing the interpretation.
These same critics contend that astrologers have a pervasive hindsight bias; the sheer numbers of variables allow astrologers to choose, after the fact, from multiple combinations to fit the event. Kelly has published a number of highly dismissive critiques of astrology and repeatedly concludes that astrology is too multifaceted and too contradictory to be a reliable source of information Kelly, , ,, Unlike most published criticisms including the "Objections to Astrology" manifesto mentioned above , Kelly's critical essays are generally well researched with numerous citations of evidence against astrology.
Because of this, his publications are often cited in the literature, making him a powerful influence in astrology research. Kelly maintains that astrologers are biased and tend to consider confirming evidence, but not contrary evidence, maintaining that there is a willful ignorance of current research that fails to support astrology's central tenets. He quotes Robert Hand, one of the foremost authors in modern astrology and a frequent speaker at astrology conventions, as stating that "positive results in the scientific study of astrology have to be taken seriously undeniably, but negative results not so seriously" Perry, , p.
Kelly also mentions West, who wrote in his text The Case for Astrology , that "intimate details of the bulk of the negative evidence do not really concern us" p. Although Kelly and Dean has been subjected to criticisms of bias against astrology e. Phillipson , who interviewed more than thirty leading professional astrologers, also found that many are either ignorant of the scientific research studies in astrology or are of the opinion that current astrology research is misguided and not a true reflection of the craft.
Alexander , a proponent of using the horoscope as a counseling tool, dismisses the astrology research as irrelevant: "We have enough cumulative experience to know that astrology works, whether the computer studies and the scientists agree with us or not" p. Although the above-cited comments may not be reflective of the astrological community as a whole, openness to scientific inquiry is an important component to gaining credibility in the academic communities that currently dismiss astrology.
Kelly , also strongly criticizes astrology's validity through the ubiquitous use of confirming evidence. Using as an example the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana, Kelly cites Lilley-Harvey , a well-known British professional astrologer, who compared Charles and Diana's natal charts prior to their marriage and interpreted strong rapport, emotional compatibility, and harmony. Kelly then cited Campion a , an equally well-known British professional astrologer, who interpreted emotional incompatibility, anger, and trauma when comparing the two natal charts after the divorce.
Kelly dismissively stated that "an astrological horoscope generally provides planetary configurations for any number of conflicting predictions or after-the-fact explanations of events, so no wonder astrologers claim to see it 'working' everywhere" p. Astrology's presence in academic environments is controversial and disparaged because of astrology's poor reputation among some academics Evans, ; Jayaraman, This strong criticism of astrology as a scientific discipline when compared to the popular interest in astrology as a scientific field of study is interesting, and suggests, at the very least, that the debate is far from concluded.
However, the argument that astrology is not a valid discipline and thus is not a worthy candidate for scientific study is an important assertion that cannot be ignored. Obviously academic subjects do not need to be scientifically valid in order to qualify for scholarly inquiry. History, religion, the arts, and virtually all the humanities are, for the most part, not scientifically reliable when looked at through a scientific lens but are considered appropriate fields for academic.
Additionally, for research purposes, a topic does not need to be scientifically reliable to qualify for statistical study, especially using qualitative mixed methods. However, natal astrology's dominant, central thesis is that the horoscope can reliably predict personality characteristics at the moment of birth; that is, persons born with certain astrological configurations or significators points or positions in the natal chart , such as the Sun in Gemini, will tend to have personality characteristics that are distinct from others born with different astrological significators, such as the Sun in Scorpio.
This hypothesis, at the very least, puts astrology in the realm of testable, experimental study, and academic research of this type requires a careful consideration of reliability and validity L. These types of studies are the central focus of the research review below. Overview of the Astrology Research to Date Perhaps the best single-volume overview of modern astrology and research is Phillipson's wide-reaching survey text, Astrology in the Year Zero Phillipson, It is a highly thought provoking and rigorous book based upon more than thirty interviews with professional astrologers and researchers, and provides a synopsis of the academic arguments between astrologers and scientists regarding astrology's validity as a discipline.
Each of the researchers quoted in Phillipson's text has studied astrology for over twenty years. Two are former, full-time practicing astrologers Dean and Smit and two are university professors. Collectively, they have written over two hundred. Smit maintains the website, www. Dean and Mather, under the auspices of the Astrological Association of Great Britain, compiled one of the earliest and most important collections of modern astrology research.
It was the first of its kind and became a bible of sorts for astrology researchers world-wide Kelly, Dean, in particular, is a controversial figure in the field of astrology. Prior to abandoning his astrology practice, he was a full-time practicing astrologer and astrology instructor who served as the founding president of the Australian Astrologers, Western Australia branch Phillipson, Phillipson asked the researchers to summarize their position on the astrology research conducted to date. Collectively, these researchers identified four main points: 1.
Many important questions regarding astrology's scientific validity have been researched extensively and the results have been overwhelmingly negative. Of the positive studies, most have foiled to replicate or withstood postpublication peer review of faulty methods. It is noteworthy that the increasing evidence against astrology, as well as some personal experiences. The sheer number of persons who claim that astrology works is substantial.
However, from a scientific perspective, it is not enough to identify correspondences to astrological calculations and symbols. All nonastrological factors that could be contributing to the same result need to be considered and ruled out. These researchers argue that astrologers have generally done a poor job identifying confounding variables and artifacts when citing evidence for astrology's validity. Most astrological studies published by non-peer reviewed publications tend to rely on anecdotes or testimonials as central evidence. Astrology as a field has not done a reasonable job of identifying and discussing reasoning errors that may contribute to the conclusion that astrology is valid; these include reasoning by analogy things similar in one respect are also similar in other respects , confirmation bias interpreting to confirm pre-existing beliefs , illusory correlation interpreting correlations that are not statistically significant , placebo effect the tendency for an intervention to work simply because the recipient believes it will , the Dr.
These reasoning errors can explain many of the mistakes made in data analysis and need to be carefully controlled in all scientific research, including astrology. One cannot deny the historical importance of astrology or the fact that many people find satisfaction with astrology. It is important to note that astrology does not need to be a scientifically valid perspective to provide solace, meaning, and perspective for interpreting one's life and worldview, much like a religious orientation. Additionally, although there have not been many positive tests of astrology and most failed to replicate, there are studies that warrant further inquiry and astrological tenets that remain unexamined.
The existing research represents the conclusions up to date, but scientists should remain open-minded to possible future discoveries in astrology research. Currently over five hundred empirical studies of astrology have been published, although many have not been subjected to peer review and are not easily retrievable Dean, ; Phillipson et al. In addition, there are numerous astrology studies, generally published by astrologers, that use the term research, but almost all of these studies use anecdotal evidence and do not meet the rigorous standards of scientific research Urban-Lurain, a.
The majority of the. To date, most of the peer-reviewed, empirical studies of astrology have been either blind matching studies, where the ability to match the correct horoscope to a person or a personality profile is tested, or single variable and multivariate experiments, where variables in the natal chart are compared to personality profiles, case histories, or standardized scores from personality assessment questionnaires.
Many of the studies are obscure and it is difficult to locate the original publications. The major matching studies are reviewed below. Carlson experiment Perhaps the most well known and most cited of all the matching studies is Carlson's experiment that was published in Nature, one of the world's most prestigious scientific journals. Carlson proposed to test "the fundamental thesis of astrology" that the moment of birth can be used to predict general personality.
In an attempt to provide fair conditions for his experimental design, Carlson reported participation from an advisory panel of three astrologers from the National Council for Geocosmic Research NCGR , an international astrological organization dedicated to education and research in astrology, during the test design stage. The study consisted of two distinct experiments. The first experiment consisted of two parts.
In the first part, 83 subjects were given three narrative horoscope interpretations that were generated by the participating astrologers. One was the correct horoscope interpretation and two were selected randomly from the pool of horoscope interpretations for the other participants.
The subjects were asked to select the correct one that corresponded with their birth information, ranking the three interpretations in the order of best fit. The interpretations included descriptions of personality, relationships, career, education, and current life situation. A control group of 94 subjects was asked to complete the same task, but none of the three horoscopes actually belonged to the subject.
Carlson's control group consisted of a mixed group of people that included subjects who strongly disbelieved in astrology, subjects who previously had a natal chart constructed for them, subjects under 17 years old, and persons who did not know their exact birth time, birthplace, or birth location. In the second part of the first experiment, 56 subjects and 50 control subjects were given three psychological personality profiles derived from the California Psychological Inventory CPI Gough, and a two-page summary of the 18 CPI scales used for the profile.
They were then asked to select their correct CPI profile, again ranking the three profiles in terms of best fit. In the second experiment, a group of astrologers were given packets that included a horoscope and three CPI profiles, and asked to match the horoscope to the correct profile. Unlike the subjects, the astrologers were provided with a page interpretation manual of the CPI scales. Once they made their selection, the astrologers were then asked to rate their level of confidence in making that selection. It is important to note that although Carlson mailed out envelopes with the data to 28 astrologers, he reported that some astrologers "refused to participate" after receiving the packets in the mail Carlson, , p.
Unfortunately, Carlson does not say how many astrologers did participate, so the actual number of astrologers who completed the study is unclear Ertel, ; Vidmar, This is odd, as the control group was selecting from three interpretations, none of which was actually theirs. Carlson referred to this as a "statistical fluctuation" , p. In the second experiment, the astrologers matched the correct. From these results, Carlson concluded that "the experiment clearly refutes the astrological hypothesis" Carlson, , p.
Carlson's article was widely popularized and upon publication, his "proof' that astrology was false was immediately reported in newspapers and on television programs throughout the US, UK, and Canada, causing many in the astrological community to criticize the "media circus" Vidmar, , p. In spite of its popular appeal immediately following publication, the article has been subjected to withering criticism since then for its poor design, improper methods and procedure, and faulty data analysis Cornelius, ; Ertel, ; Eysenck, a, b; T.
Hamilton, ; McRitchie, Criticisms of the study include the basic research design. No demographic information was provided in the study about the astrologers. In particular, noticeably missing is any information about their years of study or practice, education level, or what criteria were used to establish them as experts, which is a considerable flaw in the study considering Carlson's emphasis on the importance of the astrologers participation in designing the study Vidmar,